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Saturations, Permeabilities, and Reservoir Compartments
Green and red transparent triangles point from two fault blocks in the 3D model to log-derived J Function data for the respective blocks. By assuming variability in permeability and different free water elevations for the blocks, Geo2Flow describes a possible scenario comprising a single J Function and permeabilities that are modified from their original values, as shown by plots on the right.
Geo2Flow Inputs and Outputs
Minimal inputs are porosity and water saturation logs, fluid densities, a geomodel, and 3D porosity. For more constrained results, add data such as capillary pressures, poro-perm data, permeability logs, reservoir pressures, and greater geological detail. Main 3D outputs are compartments, horizontal and vertical permeability; oil, water, and gas saturations and volumes – all honoring input data.
Color-Coded Workflow Managers and Plenty of Documentation
Even a bimodal capillary pressure curve (shown here) is easy to fit with Geo2Flow’s workflow managers. Read about the science behind the technology in the extensive documentation designed for the interdisciplinary team. Geo2Flow guides you through the complexities of compartments, permeabilities, and saturations with its intuitive and straightforward user interface. Just follow the red buttons.
Permeability and saturation are coupled and modeled together
The left figure shows a log-derived J Function using the original permeability. The center-left figure shows probability distributions describing the error in the permeability and an Archie exponent. The center-right figure shows the log-derived J Function using the output permeability. The right figure shows the output permeability (constrained by saturation) compared to the input permeability.
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Geo2Flow uses patented technology for identifying reservoir compartments, for calculating 3D permeabilities consistent with saturation logs, and for ensuring 3D saturations that are physically realistic and match their corresponding logs exactly.
Matches 3D saturations to saturation logs: reserves integrity.
Improves permeability modelling by coupling with saturation logs.
Identifies reservoir flow compartments: “game-changers”.
Builds consistent and physically realistic reservoir models.
Assesses “order one” reservoir volume and flow uncertainties.
Applies in “data rich” or “data poor” environments.
Pulls in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering.
Replaces simplified scripts, spreadsheets, saturation-height models.
Identifies data quality issues while addressing outliers.
Initializes robust history-matching.
Examines the impact of variability in petrophysical properties.
Fits and parameterizes core-derived J Functions (even bimodal ones).
Estimates relative permeabilities from log-derived J Functions.
Upscales J Functions, horizontal and vertical permeabilities.
Guides you with straightforward, color-coded workflow managers.
Brings you unchallenged, “best in class”, patented technology.
Compartments are “game changers” that require more wells or platforms. Detecting them requires integrating petrophysics, geophysics, geology, and reservoir engineering. With Geo2Flow, you identify compartments and are better prepared for their consequences. Permeability and saturations are coupled and must be modeled together. Conventional permeability modeling that relies on porosity, facies, or mineralogy without including a physically realistic connection to saturations is unable to model permeability correctly. With Geo2Flow, you obtain more reliable estimates of permeabilities. Serious saturation modeling demands more than scripts or spreadsheets that are either too simple or too disconnected from the geological model. Moreover, conventional saturation-height modeling fails to account for variability in permeability, especially seen in carbonates, which can cause a 20% porosity rock above a fluid contact to exhibit 20-80% water saturations. With Geo2Flow, your simulation models match the saturation logs exactly. As its name implies, Geo2Flow is the link between geological models and flow simulations. It has been used in “data-rich” or “data-poor” environments, clastics and carbonates, gas and oil, with “unimodal” or “bimodal” rocks. Its primary user varies from company to company: reservoir engineers, petrophysicists, or geologists. Its straightforward workflow and “science behind the technology” training course is designed for anyone on an asset team. Integrating Geo2Flow into your workflow ensures that your methods for calculating fluid volumes and reserves are “best-in-class”.